Enjoy a fascinating 1.5-hour guided walk that takes in the elegant buildings of downtown Turin that date from its time as the first capital of Italy. Admire the Palazzo Reale, home to kings for over 2 centuries, the Senate with its 2 sides, the superb Baroque Church of San Lorenzo and the Renaissance cathedral with the Sacra Sindone.Take a walk along the Via Roma, with its chic shops and historic cafés, visit the Piazza San Carlo, the salon of Turin, Piazza Carignano, the birthplace of the Renaissance and the Teatro Regio, a favorite of the Savoy family.In addition, you’ll enjoy a 1.5-hour guided visit to Turin’s Egyptian Museum with your skip-the-line ticket. If you’re interested in Egyptian culture and its mysteries, you’ll find the collection impressive. It is the only facility, other than the Cairo Museum, that is dedicated solely to Egyptian art and culture.
Regio- and Stereoselective Catalytic Addition of Amides to Alkynes ab 89.9 € als Taschenbuch: Synthesis of the enamide substructure in the most atom-economic and environmentally friendly way. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Chemie,
Developed from the classic DB BR 155 ‘Electric Container’ and heavily related to the ever-popular DB BR 143, the DB BR 114 continued the successful line of wired traction throughout Germany. Boasting a high top speed, and a comfortable ride, the 114s earned their unified recognition. Prominent regional services abound for the DB BR 114, in this excellent locomotive addition for Train Simulator.1973, the midst of the Oil Crisis, and East Germany’s rail network was at the receiving end. Old Russian diesel locomotives were at the helm of many services, and naturally, as the prices for Black Gold were set on the incline. Outward of the Crisis, it was decided that many of Deutsche Reichsbahn’s lines were in urgent need of electrification. It was not long before a fresh new array of wires was hanging above the rails, and a subsequent requirement for a new fleet of electric locomotives, to utilise the modernisation, soon followed.LEW Hennigsdorf, as standard, were appointed the task of designing a new electric locomotive. Initiative triumphed, the design for the new loco would be derived from the DR BR 250 (later, DB BR 155) as it was designed as a ‘universal’ locomotive with a body shell and chassis capable of future developments and modification. The freight-orientated Co-Co wheel layout was swapped out for a passenger-suited Bo-Bo arrangement and eventually the prototype, dubbed ‘White Lady’, was completed.In 1982, at the Leipzig Spring Fair, White Lady, numbered as 212 001, made her debut. After entertaining the public, the true hard work of testing began. Every aspect of the locomotive came under scrutiny, and following many extensive trials, the prototype was dismantled for evaluation. It would be found that a locomotive capable of 160 km/h, as 212 001 was, was not what East Germany required at the time, many routes were limited to a maximum of 120 km/h. As such, the locomotive was rebuilt to accommodate the new restriction, and was renumbered to 243 001, the prototype for todays’ DB BR 143.What wasn’t counted on, was the effect of Reunification, when Germany began the process of coming back together, many railway lines were upgraded to modern standard. These new upgrades allowed for an increase in top service speed to 160 km/h, and now, neither Deutsche Reichsbahn or Deutsche Bundesbahn had a large enough fleet for the faster routes. Once again, a new locomotive was required.Attention was brought back to the original, 160 km/h-capable, 212 001 prototype as a basis for the new batch of production locomotives. Both DR and DB would order a batch of locomotives based on the 212, this was the first time both companies had placed an order for the same locomotives, and as such the 212 fleet would go on to be the tractive symbol for reunification. When the time came for nationwide reclassification, the BR 212s became known as the DB BR 112.The DB BR 112 fleet spent much of its time operating services in and out of Berlin, in fact, upon the arrival of their updated siblings, the DB BR 112.1, the original batch of locos was taken to be known as the DB BR 114. This change was supposed to represent the fleet’s Berlin exclusivity, but in hindsight it just put more numbers on the rails. The DB BR 114’s would soon find themselves operating DB Regio services throughout Germany, and thus, despite internal upgrades and a slightly different headlight cluster, were still DB BR 112’s at heart and the ‘114’ designation could prove to be redundant.In all, the DB BR 114’s, along with other derivatives of the original ‘White Lady’, are a vital part of Germany’s rail network. Successful from the start, the DB BR 114 has proved to be a nationwide unifying icon, an undoubtedly reliable passenger locomotive and a fine example of motive power.ScenariosThe DB BR 114 Loco Add-on includes three career scenarios for the Hamburg S1 S-Bahn route:Last Train HomeRegionalbahn to HamburgRegionalbahn to AhrensburgMore scenarios are available on Steam Workshop online and in-game. Train Simulator’s Steam Workshop scenarios are free and easy to download, adding many more hours of gameplay. With scenarios being added daily, why don’t you check it out now!Click here for Steam Workshop scenarios.Key FeaturesAuthentic and prototypical simulation of the DB BR 114Accurate and highly detailed cab featuring PZB 90 and SiFA in-cab safety systems and much moreChallenging career scenarios for the Hamburg S1 S-Bahn routeQuick Drive compatible
Regio- and Stereoselective Catalytic Addition of Amides to Alkynes ab 89.9 EURO Synthesis of the enamide substructure in the most atom-economic and environmentally friendly way
The first part of the present review is devoted to the synthesis of 2-aroyl-3-aryl aziridines. Scientists are interested in these classes of heterocyclic compounds, first of all by their photochromic properties and high sensitivity towards UV-VIS irradiation. In addition, these compounds are interesting from the viewpoint of reactivity, chemo- and regio-selectivity, stereochemistry and many other. The last part is concerned with chemical behavior of 2-aroyl-3-aryl aziridines in numerous organic reactions including photochemical transformations, cycloadditions, rearrangements, regio- and stereo-selectivity, 1,3-diolar reaction, ring expansion, ring opening, deamination and other.
The enamide moiety is an important substructure often encountered in biologically active compounds and synthetic drugs. Furthermore, enamides and their derivatives are versatile synthetic intermediates for polymerization, [4+2] cycloaddition, crosscoupling, Heck-olefinination, Halogenation, enantioselective addition or asymmetric hydrogenation. Traditional syntheses of this important substrate class involve rather harsh reaction conditions such as high temperatures and/or the use of strong bases. Based on previous work on the addition of secondary amides to alkynes, a new broadly applicable protocol for the catalytic addition of N-nucleophiles such as primary amides, imides and thioamides to terminal alkynes was developed. The choice of ligands and additives determines the regiochemical outcome so that with two complementary catalyst systems, both the E-anti-Markovnikov products and the Z-anti-Markovnikov products can be synthesized highly regio- and stereoselectively.
The first part of this book describes the detailed mechanism of ruthenium catalyzed nucleophilic addition to terminal alkynes with the aim of understanding the key factors controlling the regio- and stereoselectivity of product formation. These types of reactions provide excellent methodologies for the synthesis of enamides and enol-esters. The main challenge of this method arises due to formation of product mixture, Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov E- or Z- products. Control of regio- and stereoselectivity by modulating the electronic and steric environment along with solvent effect is nicely discussed in this part. The second part deals with the metal free asymmetric transformations and remarkable chemistry of main group radical species. This part also offers the reader to learn how to use modern theoretical techniques to predict the reactivity and product selectivity in terms of ground electronic structure and bonding parameters.
Heterocyclicmoleculesplayasigni?cantroleinlifeprocessesandhaveplayed a major rolein industrial developments of the last century, for instance in the ?eld of dyes, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, polymers etc. They comprise not onlysomeofthemostinterestingandbiologicallyimportantnaturalproducts like alkaloids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and antibiotics but include many practical drugs and a large segment of known synthetic organic compounds. Hencescientistshavedevotedagreatamountofeffortto?ndoptimalsynthetic approachesto a variety ofheterocyclic compounds. Amongthemostsuccessfulandselectivesyntheticprocessesarecycload- tionreactions,since theyinvolvesimultaneous orsequential formationoftwo ormorebondsoftenwithahighdegreeofstereoselectivityandregioselectivity. Forinstance, 1,3 dipolar cycloadditionsareelectronicallyequivalent to Diels Alder reactions and are among the most common 5-membered ring-forming systems. In addition they usually proceed with a high degree of stereo- and regio-control.It is therefore, not surprising that synthesis of many important classesofheterocycles,includingthoseofusefulbiologicallyactivemolecules, haveutilized cycloadditionsteps intheir formation.Furthermore,manyhe- rocyclesserve as intermediates in the synthesis of polyfunctional molecules. In this volume we present ?ve selected contributions by well-known - thors, each an authority in his ?eld. The ?rst chapter deals with construction ofisoxazolines(dihydroisoxazoles)via1,3-dipolarcycloadditionsofnitronates or of nitrile oxides generated from nitroalkanes. This includes inter- as well as intramolecular processes. Many of these heterocycles possess important synthetic and biological properties and are shown to lead to stereo- and - gioselectiveintroductionofmultifunctionalmoleculessuchasaminoalcohols, ?-amino acids, aldols, nitriles, and others.
Die Rhodium-katalysierte Hydroformylierung eröffnet einen ökonomisch sehr interessanten Weg zur Einführung der präparativ wertvollen Aldehydfunktion unter vergleichsweise milden Bedingungen. Die Chemo- Regio- und Stereoselektivität kann dabei durch eine substratgebundene, Katalysator-dirigierende Gruppe kontrolliert werden; in diesem Fall die ortho-Diphenylphosphanylbenzoyl-Gruppe (o-DPPB). In dieser Arbeit wird eine regio- und stereoselektive Hydroformylierung von internen und terminalen Olefinen vorgestellt, welche direkten Zugang zum anti-Aldol-Retron gewährt. Durch nachfolgende Cuprat-Addition wird der entsprechende sekundäre Alkohol mit guter Diastereoselektivität erhalten; daran anschliessend erfolgt eine Umesterung des o-DPPB-Esters, wodurch eine Wiederholung der vorhergehenden Schritte möglich ist. Durch diese neue Methode lassen sich Polypropionatketten in iterativer Weise aufbauen.